In any case, this is partly the thesis of Jean-Paul Démoule. It is true that the mastery of agriculture by sedentary man in the Neolithic period allowed him to free himself in part from climatic and natural hazards and to feed himself better. In doing so, he organized a predation on his environment, the impact of which was not negligible from the beginning of the Neolithic. The rice civilization, born from a long practice of land and water management, will quickly allow to shelter and feed important population densities. The environmental impact will then be reflected by a loss of biodiversity and increasing pollution. The extinctions of species will follow one another. The clear-cutting of Brazil and of many primary forests in the world would only be the logical continuation of a long domination of man over nature. Can we limit this phenomenon, if not reverse it? Neolithic man saw this development of space as a means of survival. Modern Homo economicus often sees it as an economic opportunity, often preferring the lucrative export monoculture of green deserts to the food agriculture of villages, which is more adapted to bioclimatic conditions. If it is not too late, we must rethink the relationship between man and environment. The true green revolution will only be possible if we put on an equal footing the absolute necessity of feeding all humans with dignity and putting nature itself at the center of our ecosystems.